References for Why Back to Sleep is the Safest Position For Your Baby

1. Tursan d’Espaignet, E., Bulsara, M., Wolfenden, L., Byard, R.W. & Stanley, F.J. (2008) Trends in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Australia from 1980 to 2002. Forensic Sci Med Pathol;4:83-90.

2. Moon, R.Y., Horne, R.S. & Hauck, F.R. (2007). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The Lancet, 370:1578-87.

3. Gilbert, R., Salanti, G., Harden, M. & See, S. (2005). Infant sleeping position and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Systematic review of observational studies and historical review of recommendations from 1940 to 2002. Int J Epidemiol;34:874-87.

4. Byard, R.W. & Krous, H.F. (2003). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Overview and update. Pediatr Dev Pathol;6:112-27.

5. Mitchell, E.A. (2007). Recommendations for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome prevention: A discussion document. Arch Dis Child;92:155-9.

6. Read, D.J.C., Jeffery, H.E. & Rahilly, P. (1982). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and suspeted “near miss”: An overview for clinicians. Med J Aust;1:82-5.

7. Filiano, J.J. & Kinney, H. (1994). A perspective on neuropathologic findings in victims of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: The triple risk model. Biol Neonate;65:194-7.

8. Carpenter, R.G., Irgens, L.M., Blair, P.S., England, P.D., Fleming, P., Huber J., ... & Schreuder, P. (2004). Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: Case control study. The Lancet, 363:185-91.

9. Mitchell, E.A., Scragg, R., Stewart, A.W., Becroft, D.M., Taylor, B.J., Ford, R.P., ... & Roberts, A. P. (1991). Results from the first year of the New Zealand cot death study. N Z Med J;104:71-6.

10. Ponsonby, A.L., Dwyer, T., Gibbons, L.E., Cochrane, J.A. & Wang, Y.G. (1993). Factors potentiating the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome associated with the prone position. N Engl J Med;329:377-82.

11. Platt, M.J., Pharoah, P.O. (1996). Child health statistical review, 1996. Arch Dis Child;75:527-33.

12. Dwyer, T., Ponsonby, A-L., Newman, N.M. & Gibbons, L.E. (1991). Prospective cohort study of prone sleeping position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. The Lancet, 337:1244-7.

13. Irgens, L.M., Markestad, T., Baste, V., Schreuder, P., Skjaerven, R. & Oyen, N. (1995). Sleeping position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Norway 1967-91. Arch Dis Child;72:478-82.

14. Taylor, J.A., Krieger, J.W., Reay, D.T., Davis, R.L., Harruff, R. & Cheney, L.K. (1996). Prone sleep position and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in King County, Washington: A case-control study. J Pediatr;128:626-30.

15. Fleming, P.J., Gilbert, R., Azaz, Y., Berry, P.J., Rudd, P.T., Stewart, A.,…& Hall, E. (1990). Interaction between bedding and sleeping position in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A population based case-control study. BMJ;301:85-9.

16. de Jonge, G.A., Engelberts, A.C., Koomen-Liefting, A.J. & Kostense, P.J. (1989). Cot death and prone sleeping position in The Netherlands. BMJ;298:722.

17. Guntheroth, W.G. & Spiers, P.S. (1992). Sleeping prone and the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. JAMA, 267: 2359-62.

18. Stanley, F.J. & Byard, R.W. (1991). The association between the prone sleeping position and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): An editorial overview. J Paediatr Child Health, 27:325-8.

19. Willinger, M., Hoffman, H.J., Wu, K.T., Hou, J.R,. Kessler, R.C, Ward, S.L.,...& Corwin, M. J. (1998). Factors associated with the transition to nonprone sleep positions of infants in the United States: The National Infant Sleep Position Study. JAMA, 280: 329-35.

20. Dwyer, T., Ponsonby, A.L., Blizzard, L., Newman, N.M. & Cochrane, J.A. (1995). The contribution of changes in the prevalence of prone sleeping position to the decline in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in Tasmania. JAMA; 273:783-9.

21. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). (2000). SIDS in Australia 1981-2000: A statistical overview. Canberra: ABS.

22. Blair, P.S., Sidebotham, P., Berry, P.J., Evans, M. & Fleming, P.J. (2006). Major epidemiological changes in Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A 20-year population-based study in the UK. The Lancet, 367:314-9.

23. Trachtenberg, F.L., Haas, E.A., Kinney, H.C., Stanley, C. & Krous, H.F. (2012). Risk factor changes for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome after initiation of Back-to-Sleep campaign. Pediatrics, 129:630-8.

24. Li, D.K., Petitti, D.B., Willinger, M., McMahon, R., Odouli, R., Vu, H.,…& Hoffman, H. J. (2003). Infant sleeping position and the risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in California, 1997-2000. Am J Epidemiol;157:446-55.

25. Fleming, P.J., Blair, P.S., Bacon, C., Bensley, D., Smith, I., Taylor, E.,… ... & Tripp, J. (1996). Environment of infants during sleep and risk of the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Results of 1993-5 case-control study for confidential inquiry into stillbirths and deaths in infancy. BMJ;313:191-5.

26. Mitchell, E.A., Tuohy, P.G., Brunt, J.M., Thompson, J.M., Clements, M.S., Stewart, A.W., ... & Taylor, B. J. (1997). Risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome following the prevention campaign in New Zealand: a prospective study. Pediatrics, 100:835-40.

27. Oyen, N,, Markestad, T., Skaerven, R., Irgens, L.M., Helweg-Larsen, K., Alm, B., Norvenius, G., & Wennergren, G. (1997). Combined effects of sleeping position and prenatal risk factors in sudden infant death syndrome: the Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study. Pediatrics,100:613-21.

28. Paluszynska, D.A., Harris, K.A. & Thach, B.T. (2004). Influence of sleep position experience on ability of prone-sleeping infants to escape from asphyxiating microenvironments by changing head position. Pediatrics,114:1634-9.

29. Jeffery, H.E., Megevand A. & Page, H. (1999). Why the prone position is a risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics,104:263-9.

30. Byard, R.W. & Beal, S.M. (2000). Gastric aspiration and sleeping position in infancy and early childhood. J Paediatr Child Health, 36:403-5.

31. Malloy, M.H. (2002). Trends in postneonatal aspiration deaths and reclassification of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Impact of the “Back to Sleep” program. Pediatrics, 109: 661-5.

32. Tablizo, M.A., Jacinto, P., Parsley, D., Chen, M.L., Ramanathan, R. & Keens, T.G. (2007). Supine sleeping position does not cause clinical aspiration in neonates in hospital newborn nurseries. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med; 161:507-10.

33. Vandenplas, Y., Rudolph, C.D., Di Lorenzo, C., Hassall, E., Liptak, G., Mazur, L., ... & Wenzl, T. G. (2009). Pediatric gastroesophageal reflux clinical practice guidelines: Joint recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (NASPGHAN) and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN). J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr;49:498-547.

34. Meyers, W.F. & Herbst, J.J. (1982). Effectiveness of positioning therapy for gastroesophageal reflux. Pediatrics, 69:768-72.

35. Tobin, J.M,. McCloud, P. & Cameron, D.J. (1997). Posture and gastro-oesophageal reflux: A case for left lateral positioning. Arch Dis Child;76: 254-8.

36. American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 128:1030-9.

37. Branch, L.G., Kesty, K., Krebs, E., Wright, L., Leger, S. & David, L.R. (2015). Deformational plagiocephaly and craniosynostosis: Trends in diagnosis and treatment after the “back to sleep” campaign. The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, 26:147-50.

38. van Vlimmeren, L.A., van der Graff, Y., Boere-Boonekamp, M.M., L’Hoir, M.P., Helders, P.J.M. & Engelbert, R.H.H. (2007) Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: A prospective cohort study. Pediatrics, 119(2): e408-e418.

39. Franco, P., Pardou, A., Hassid, S., Lurquin, P., Groswasser, J. & Kahn, A. (1998). Auditory arousal thresholds are higher when infants sleep in the prone position. J Pediatr; 132:240-3.

40. Horne, R.S., Ferens, D., Watts, A.M., Vitkovic, J., Lacey, B., Andrew, S.,...& Adamson, T. M. (2001). The prone sleeping position impairs arousability in term infants. J Pediatr;138:811-6.

41. Galland, B.C., Reeves, G., Taylor, B.J. & Bolton, D.P. (1998). Sleep position, autonomic function, and arousal. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed;78: F189-94.

42. Kahn, A., Groswasser, J., Sottiaux, M., Rebuffat, E., Franco, P. & Dramaix, M. (1993). Prone or supine body position and sleep characteristics in infants. Pediatrics, 91:1112-5.

43. Groswasser, J., Simon, T., Scaillet, S., Franco, P. & Kahn, A. (2001). Reduced arousals following obstructive apneas in infants sleeping prone. Pediatr Res;49:402-6.

44. Richardson, H.L., Walker, A.M. & Horne, R.S. (2008). Sleep position alters arousal processes maximally at the high-risk age for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. J Sleep Res;17:450-7.

45. Von Kohorn, I., Corwin, M.J., Rybin, D.V., Heeren, T.C., Lister, G. & Colson, E.R. (2010). Influence of prior advice and beliefs of mothers on infant sleep position. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med;164:363-9.

46. Moon, R.Y., Oden, R.P., Joyner, B.L. & Ajao, T.I. (2010). Qualitative analysis of beliefs and perceptions about Sudden Infant Death Syndrome in African-American mothers: Implications for safe sleep recommendations. J Pediatr;157:92-7 e2.

47. Willinger, M., Ko, C.W., Hoffman, H.J., Kessler, R..C. & Corwin, M.J. (2000). Factors associated with caregivers’ choice of infant sleep position, 1994-1998: The National Infant Sleep Position Study. JAMA;283:2135-42.

48. Brenner, R.A., Simons-Morton, B.G., Bhaskar, B., Mehta, N., Melnick, V.L., Revenis, M., ... & Clemens, J. D. (1998). Prevalence and predictors of the prone sleep position among inner-city infants. JAMA;280:341-6.

49. Malloy, M.H. & Hoffman, H.J. (1995). Prematurity, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and age of death. Pediatrics, 96:464-71.

50. Sowter, B., Doyle, L.W., Morley, C.J., Altmann, A. & Halliday, J. (1999). Is Sudden Infant Death Syndrome still more common in very low birthweight infants in the 1990s? Med J Aust;171:411-3.

51. Malloy, M.H. (2013). Prematurity and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: United States 2005-2007. Journal of Perinatolgy, 33:470-5.

52. Blair, P.S., Platt, M.W., Smith, I.J. & Fleming, P.J. (2006). Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and sleeping position in pre-term and low birth weight infants: An opportunity for targeted intervention. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 91:101-6.

53. Thompson, J.M. & Mitchell, E.A. (2006). Are the risk factors for SIDS different for preterm and term infants? Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 91:107-11.

54. Aris, C., Stevens, T.P., Lemura, C., Lipke, B., McMullen, S., Cote-Arsenault, D., & Consenstein, L. (2006). NICU nurses’ knowledge and discharge teaching related to infant sleep position and risk of SIDS. Adv Neonatal Care, 6:281-94.

55. Elder, D.E., Campbell, A.J. & Doherty, D.A. (2005). Prone or supine for infants with chronic lung disease at neonatal discharge? J Paediatr Child Health, 41:180-5.

56. Elder, D.E., Campbell, A.J. & Galletly, D. (2011). Effect of position on oxygen saturation and requirement in convalescent preterm infants. Acta Paediatr;100:661-5.

57. Chong, A., Murphy, N. & Matthews, T. (2000). Effect of prone sleeping on circulatory control in infants. Arch Dis Child;82:253-6.

58. Ammari, A., Schulze, K.F., Ohira-Kist, K., Kashyap, S., Fifer, W.P., Myers, M.M. & Sahni, R. (2009). Effects of body position on thermal, cardiorespiratory and metabolic activity in low birth weight infants. Early Hum Dev;85:497-501.

59. Galland, B.C., Taylor, B.J., Bolton, D.P. & Sayers, R.M. (2000). Vasoconstriction following spontaneous sighs and head-up tilts in infants sleeping prone and supine. Early Hum Dev;58:119-32.

60. Skadberg, B.T. & Markestad, T. (1997). Behaviour and physiological responses during prone and supine sleep in early infancy. Arch Dis Child;76:320-4.

61. Sahni, R., Schulze, K.F., Kashyap, S., Ohira-Kist, K., Fifer, W.P. & Myers, M.M. (1999). Postural differences in cardiac dynamics during quiet and active sleep in low birthweight infants. Acta Paediatr;88:1396-401.

62. Ariagno, R.L., Mirmiran, M., Adams, M.M., Saporito, A.G., Dubin, A.M. & Baldwin, R.B. (2003). Effect of position on sleep, heart rate variability, and QT interval in preterm infants at 1 and 3 months’ corrected age. Pediatrics,111:622-5.

63. Yiallourou, S.R., Walker, A.M. & Horne, R.S. (2008). Effects of sleeping position on development of infant cardiovascular control. Arch Dis Child;93:868-72.

64. Franco, P., Groswasser, J., Sottiaux, M., Broadfield, E. & Kahn, A. (1996). Decreased cardiac responses to auditory stimulation during prone sleep. Pediatrics, 97:174-8.

65. Galland, B.C., Hayman, R.M., Taylor, B.J., Bolton, D.P., Sayers, R.M. & Williams, S.M. (2000). Factors affecting heart rate variability and heart rate responses to tilting in infants aged 1 and 3 months. Pediatr Res;48:360-8.

66. Gabai, N., Cohen, A., Mahagney, A., Bader, D. & Tirosh, E. (2006). Arterial blood flow and autonomic function in full-term infants. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging;26:127-31.

67. Goto, K., Mirmiran, M., Adams, M.M., Longford, R.V., Baldwin, R.B., Boeddiker, M.A. & Ariagno, R. L. (1999). More awakenings and heart rate variability during supine sleep in preterm infants. Pediatrics,103:603-9.

68. White, M., Beckett, M., O’Regan, M. & Matthews, T. (1993). Autonomic function and SIDS. Acta Paediatrica Suppl;82:105-6.

69. Yiallourou, S.R., Walker, A.M. & Horne, R.S.C. (2008). Prone sleeping impairs circulatory control during sleep in healthy term infants; implications for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Sleep, 31:1139-46.

70. Wong, F.Y., Witcombe, N.B. Yiallourou, S.R., Yorkston, S., Dymowski, A.R., Krishnan, L.,...& Horne, R. S. (2011). Cerebral oxygenation is depressed during sleep in healthy term infants when they sleep prone. Pediatrics, 127:e558-65.