References for Using a Dummy or Pacifier

1. Horne, R. S., Hauck, F. R., Moon, R. Y., L’Hoir, M. P., Blair, P. S. and Physiology and Epidemiology Working Groups of the International Society for the Study and Prevention of Perinatal and Infant Death (2014), Dummy (pacifier) use and sudden infant death syndrome: Potential advantages and disadvantages. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 50: 170–174. doi: 10.1111/jpc.12402

2. Horne R, Hauck F, Blair PS. (2014). ISPID Evidence Report: Dummy (Pacifier) Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS): Potential Advantages and Disadvantages. Prepared by International Society for the Study and Prevention of Infant Death Physiology and Epidemiology Working Parties. ISPID. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health (in press).

3. Moon, R.Y., American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (2011). Policy statement. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: Expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics, 128 (5), 1030-9. doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2284. Retrieved from

4. Moon, R.Y., American Academy of Pediatrics, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (2011). Technical Report. SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment Pediatrics, 128(5), e1341-e1367. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-2285

5. Lieberthal, A. S., Carroll, A. E., Chonmaitree, T., Ganiats, T. G., Hoberman, A., Jackson, M. A., ... & Tunkel, D. E. (2013). The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. Pediatrics, 131(3), e964-e999.

6. Sexton, S., & Natale, R. (2009). Risks and Benefits of Pacifiers. American Family Physician, 79(8), 681-685. Retrieved from

7. Mitchell, E.A., Blair, P.S., & L’Hoir, M.P. (2006). Should pacifiers be recommended to prevent Sudden Infant Death Syndrome? Pediatrics, 117, 1755-8. Retrieved from

8. Ponti, M, Canadian Paediatric Society, Community Paediatrics Committee (2003). Canadian Paediatric Society Community Paediatrics Committee Position Statement: Recommendations for the use of pacifiers. Paediatrics and Child Health, 8(8), 515-9. Retrieved from

9. Cozzi, F., Albani, R. & Cardi, E. (1979). A common pathophysiology for sudden cot death and sleep apnoea: “the vacuum-glossoptosis syndrome.” Medical Hypotheses, 5(3), 329–338.

10. Mitchell, E.A., Taylor, B.J., Ford, R.P… Roberts, A.P. (1993). Dummies and the sudden infant death syndrome. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 68(4), 501-504.

11. Fleming, P.J., Blair, P.S., Pollard, K.,Ward Platt, M…CESDI SUDI Research Team. (1999). Pacifier use and sudden infant death syndrome: results from the CESDI/SUDI case control study. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 81, 112-116.

12. Arnestad, M., Andersen, M. & Rognum, T.O. (1997). Is the use of dummy or carry-cot of importance for sudden infant death? European Journal of Pediatrics, 156(12), 968-70.

13. L’Hoir, M.P., Engelberts, A.C., van Well, G.T… Huber, J. (1999). Dummy use, thumb sucking, mouth breathing and cot death. European Journal of Pediatrics, 158(11), 896-901.

14. Tappin, D., Brooke, H., Ecob, R. & Gibson, A. (2002). Used infant mattresses and sudden infant death syndrome in Scotland: case-control study. BMJ, 325(7371),1007.

15. McGarvey, C., McDonnell, M., Chong, A., O’Regan,M. & Matthews, T. (2003). Factors relating to the infant’s last sleep environment in sudden infant death syndrome in the Republic of Ireland. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(12), 1058-64.

16. Hauck, F.R., Herman, S.M., Donovan, M…Willinger, M. (2003). Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: the Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics, 111(Supplement 1),1207-14.

17. Carpenter, R.G., Irgens, L.M., Blair, P.S… Schreuder, P. (2004). Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet, 363(9404), 185-91.

18. Tonkin, S.L., Vogel, S.A. & Gunn, A.J. (2008). Upper airway size while sucking on a pacifier in an infant with micrognathia. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 44(1-2), 78-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2007.01259.x

19. Franco, P., Scaillet, S., Wermenbol, V., Valente, F., Groswasser, J. & Kahn, A. (2000). The influence of a pacifier on infants’ arousals from sleep. Journal of Pediatrics, 136(6), 775-9.

20. Franco, P., Chabanski, S., Scaillet, S., Groswasser, J. & Kahn, A. (2004). Pacifier use modifies infant’s cardiac autonomic controls during sleep. Early Human Development, 77(1-2), 99-108.

21. Hanzer, M., Zotter, H., Sauseng, W., Pfurtscheller, K., Müller, W. & Kerbl, R. (2009). Pacifier use does not alter the frequency or duration of spontaneous arousals in sleeping infants. Sleep Medicine, 10(4), 464-70.

22. Hauck, F.R., Omojokun, O.O. & Siadaty, M.S. (2005). Do pacifiers reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? A meta-analysis. Pediatrics,116(5), e716-e723.

23. Callaghan, A., Kendall, G., Lock, G., Mahony, A., Payne, J. & Verrier, L. (2005). Association between pacifier use and breast-feeding, sudden infant death syndrome, infection and dental malocclusion. International Journal of Evidence Based Healthcare, 3(6),147-67.

24. Blair, P.S. & Fleming, P. (2006). Dummies and SIDS: Causality has not been established. British Medical Journal. 332(7534), 178.

25. Vennemann, M.M., Findeisen, M., Butterfass-Bahloul, T… GeSID Group. (2005). Modifiable risk factors for SIDS in Germany: results of GeSID. Acta Paediatrica, 94(6), 55-60.

26. Vennemann, M.M., Bajanowski, T., Brinkmann, B., Jorch, G., Sauerland, C., Mitchell, E.A. & GeSID Study Group. (2009). Sleep environment risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome: the German Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Study. Pediatrics,123(4),1162-70.

27. Li, D.K., Willinger, M., Petitti, D.B., Odouli, R., Liu, L. & Hoffman, H.J. (2006). Use of a dummy (pacifier) during sleep and risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): population based case-control study. BMJ,332(7532),18-22.

28. Blair, P.S., Sidebotham, P., Evason-Coombe, C., Edmonds, M., Heckstall-Smith, E.M. & Fleming, P. (2009). Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ, 339, b3666. doi: 10.1136/bmj.b3666

29. Moon, R.Y., Yang, D.C., Tanabe, K.O., Young, H.A. & Hauck, F.R. (2012) Pacifier use and SIDS: Evidence for a consistently reduced risk. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(3), 609-614. doi:10.1007/s10995-011-0793-x

30. Blass, E.M. & Hoffmeyer, L.B. (1991). Sucrose as an analgesic for newborn infants. Pediatrics, 87(2), 215-8.

31. Carbajal, R., Chauvet, X., Couderc, S. & Olivier-Martin, M. (1999). Randomised trial of analgesic effects of sucrose, glucose, and dummies in term neonates. BMJ, 319(7222),1393-1397.

32. Pinelli, J. & Symington, A. (2000). How rewarding can a pacifier be? A systematic review of nonnutritive sucking in preterm infants. Neonatal Network,1(8), 41-8.

33. Pinelli ,J. & Symington, A. (2005). Non-nutritive sucking for promoting physiologic stability and nutrition in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, (4):CD001071.

34. Cozzi, F., Morini, F., Tozzi, C., Bonci, E. & Cozzi, D.A. (2002) Effect of pacifier use on oral breathing in healthy newborn infants. Pediatric Pulmonolog, 33(5), 368-373.

35. Marter, A. & Agruss, J.C. (2007) Pacifiers: An update on use and misuse. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 12(4), 278-285.

36. Howard, C.R., Howard, F.M., Lanphear, B., Eberly, S,, deBlieck, E.A., Oakes, D. & Lawrence, R.A. (2003). Randomized clinical trial of pacifier use and bottle-feeding or cupfeeding and their effect on breastfeeding. Pediatrics, 111(3), 511-518.

37. Moimaz, S.A., Saliba, O., Lolli, L.F., Garbin, C.A., Garbin, A.J. & Saliba, N.A. (2012) A longitudinal study of the association between breast-feeding and harmful oral habits. Pediatric Dentistry, 34(2), 117-121.

38. Jaafar, S.H., Jahanfar, S., Angolkar, M. & Ho, J.J. (2012). Pacifier use versus no pacifier use in breastfeeding term infants for increasing duration of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (7), CD007202.

39. O’Connor, N.R., Tanabe, K.O., Siadaty, M.S. & Hauck, F. (2009). Pacifiers and breastfeeding: a systematic review. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine,163(4), 378-82.

40. Aarts, C., Hörnell, A., Kylberg, E., Hofvander, Y. & Gebre-Medhin, M. (1999). Breastfeeding patterns in relation to thumb sucking and pacifier use. Pediatrics, 104(4), e50. Retrieved from

41. Uhari, M., Mäntysaari, K. & Niemelä, M. (1996). A meta-analytic review of the risk factors for acute otitis media. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 22(6),1079-1083.

42. Niemelä, M., Pihakari, O., Pokka, T., Uhari, M. & Uhari, M. (2000). Pacifier as a risk factor for acute otitis media: A randomized, controlled trial of parental counselling. Pediatrics,106(3), 483-8.

43. Rovers, M.M., Numans, M.E., Langenbach, E., Grobbee, D.E., Verheij, T.J. & Schilder, A.G. (2008). Is pacifier use a risk factor for acute otitis media? A dynamic cohort study. Family Practice, 25(4) 233-236. doi: 10.1093/fampra/cmn030

44. Joanna Briggs Institute. (2006). Early childhood pacifier use in relation to breastfeeding, SIDS, infection and dental malocclusion. Nursing Standard, 20(38), 52-55. (Same Article revised – Callaghan et al)

45. North, K., Fleming, P. & Golding, J. (1999). Pacifier use and morbidity in the first six months of life. Pediatrics, 103(3), e34.

46. Mattos-Graner, R.O., de Moraes, A.B., Rontani, R.M. & Birman, E.G. (2001) Relation of oral yeast infection in Brazilian infants and use of a pacifier. ASDC Journal of Dentistry for Children, 68(1), 33-6, 10.

47. Simkiss, D.E., Sheppard, I. & Pal, B.R. (1998). Airway obstruction by a child’s pacifier: could flange design be safer? European Journal of Pediatrics, 157(3), 252-254.

48. Larsson, E. (1994). Artificial sucking habits: etiology, prevalence and effect on occlusion. International Journal of Orofacial Myology, 20,10-21.

49. Poyak, J. (2006). Effects of pacifiers on early oral development. International Journal of Orthodontics (Milwaukee),17(4),13-16.

50. Mitchell, E.A., Freemantle, J., Young, J. & Byard, R.W. (2012). Scientific consensus forum to review the evidence underpinning the recommendations of the Australian SIDS and Kids Safe Sleeping Health Promotion Programme – October 2010. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health,. 48(8), 626-33. 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2011.02215.x