References for Wrapping or Swaddling Babies

1. Moon RY, Task Force On Sudden Infant Death S. SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Evidence Base for 2016 Updated Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. Pediatrics 2016;138.

2. van Sleuwen BE, Engelberts AC, Boere-Boonekamp MM, Kuis W, Schulpen TWJ, L’Hoir MP. Swaddling: a systematic review. Pediatrics 2007;120:e1097-106.

3. Goodstein MH, Hauck FR, Darnall RA, Feldman-Winter L, Moon RY. Swaddling is not contraindicated in the newborn period. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association 2016;36:160.

4. Young J, Gore R, Gorman B, Watson K. Wrapping and swaddling infants: Child health nurses’ knowledge, attitudes and practice. Neonatal, Paediatric & Child Health Nursing 2013;16:2.

5. Task Force On Sudden Infant Death S. SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Updated 2016 Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment. Pediatrics 2016;138.

6. Pease AS, Fleming PJ, Hauck FR, et al. Swaddling and the Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: A Meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2016;137.

7. Ponsonby AL, Dwyer T, Gibbons LE, Cochrane JA, Wang YG. Factors potentiating the risk of sudden infant death syndrome associated with the prone position. N Engl J Med 1993;329:377-82.

8. Russell NU. Aspects of Baby Wrappings: Swaddling, Carrying and Wearing. . In: Douny SHaL, ed. Wrapping and Unwrapping Material Culture: Archaeological and Anthropological Perspectives Walnut Creek.: Left Coast Press; 2014:43–58.

9. van Sleuwen BE, L’Hoir MP, Engelberts AC, et al. Comparison of behavior modification with and without swaddling as interventions for excessive crying. The Journal of Pediatrics 2006;149:512-7.

10. Kelmanson I. Swaddling: Maternal Option and Sleep Behaviour in Two-month-old Infants. . Child Care in Practice 2013;19:36–48.

11. Nelson EA, Schiefenhoevel W, Haimerl F. Child care practices in nonindustrialized societies. Pediatrics 2000;105:E75.

12. Abdulrazzaq YM, Kendi AA, Nagelkerke N. Child care practice in the United Arab Emirates: the ESACCIPS study. Acta Paediatr 2008;97:590-5.

13. Gerard CM, Harris KA, Thach BT. Spontaneous arousals in supine infants while swaddled and unswaddled during rapid eye movement and quiet sleep. Pediatrics 2002;110:e70.

14. Gerard CM, Harris KA, Thach BT. Physiologic studies on swaddling: an ancient child care practice, which may promote the supine position for infant sleep. J Pediatr 2002;141:398-403.

15. Oden RP, Powell C, Sims A, Weisman J, Joyner BL, Moon RY. Swaddling: will it get babies onto their backs for sleep? Clinical Pediatrics 2012;51:254-9.

16. Ohgi S, Akiyama T, Arisawa K, Shigemori K. Randomised controlled trial of swaddling versus massage in the management of excessive crying in infants with cerebral injuries. Archives of Disease in Childhood 2004;89:212-6.

17. Blom MA, van Sleuwen BE, de Vries H, Engelberts AC, L’Hoir MP. Health care interventions for excessive crying in infants: regularity with and without swaddling. J Child Health Care 2009;13:161-76.

18. Fearon I, Kisilevsky BS, Hains SM, Muir DW, Tranmer J. Swaddling after heel lance: age-specific effects on behavioral recovery in preterm infants. J Dev Behav Pediatr 1997;18:222-32.

19. Neu M, Browne JV. Infant physiologic and behavioral organization during swaddled versus unswaddled weighing. J Perinatol 1997;17:193-8.

20. Franco P, Seret N, Van Hees J-N, Scaillet S, Groswasser J, Kahn A. Influence of swaddling on sleep and arousal characteristics of healthy infants. Pediatrics 2005;115:1307-11.

21. Renfrew MJ, Lang S, Martin L, Woolridge M. Interventions for influencing sleep patterns in exclusively breastfed infants. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2000:CD000113.

22. Shu S-H, Lee Y-L, Hayter M, Wang R-H. Efficacy of swaddling and heel warming on pain response to heel stick in neonates: a randomised control trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing 2014;23:3107-14.

23. Thach BT. Does Swaddling Decrease or Increase the Risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome? The Journal of pediatrics 2009;155:461-2.

24. Franco P, Scaillet S, Groswasser J, Kahn A. Increased cardiac autonomic responses to auditory challenges in swaddled infants. Sleep 2004;27:1527-32.

25. Richardson HL, Walker AM, Horne RSC. Minimizing the risks of sudden infant death syndrome: to swaddle or not to swaddle? The Journal of Pediatrics 2009;155:475-81.

26. Wulbrand H, McNamara F, Thach BT. The role of arousal related brainstem reflexes in causing recovery from upper airway occlusion in infants. Sleep 2008;31:833-40.

27. Wang E, Liu T, Li J, et al. Does swaddling influence developmental dysplasia of the hip?: An experimental study of the traditional straight-leg swaddling model in neonatal rats. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery American Volume 2012;94:1071-7.

28. Mahan ST, Kasser JR. Does Swaddling Influence Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip? Pediatrics 2008;121:177-8.

29. Safe wrapping for hip dysplasia. 2011. at

30. Narangerel G, Pollock J, Manaseki-Holland S, Henderson J. The effects of swaddling on oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of healthy infants in Mongolia. Acta Paediatrica (Oslo, Norway: 1992) 2007;96:261-5.

31. Yurdakok K, Yavuz T, Taylor CE. Swaddling and acute respiratory infections. American Journal of Public Health 1990;80:873-5.

32. Wilson CE. Cree infant care practices and sudden infant death syndrome. Canadian Journal of Public Health = Revue Canadienne De Sante Publique 2000;91:133-6.

33. Bubnaitiene V, Kalediene R, Kevalas R. Case-control study of sudden infant death syndrome in Lithuania, 1997-2000. BMC pediatrics 2005;5:41.

34. Gilbert R, Rudd P, Berry PJ, et al. Combined effect of infection and heavy wrapping on the risk of sudden unexpected infant death. Archives of Disease in Childhood 1992;67:171-7.

35. Fleming PJ, Azaz Y, Wigfield R. Development of thermoregulation in infancy: possible implications for SIDS. Journal of Clinical Pathology 1992;45:17-9.

36. Mitchell EA, Ford RP, Taylor BJ, et al. Further evidence supporting a causal relationship between prone sleeping position and SIDS. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1992;28 Suppl 1:S9-12.

37. Carpenter RG, Irgens LM, Blair PS, et al. Sudden unexplained infant death in 20 regions in Europe: case control study. Lancet (London, England) 2004;363:185-91.

38. Wilson CA, Taylor BJ, Laing RM, Williams SM, Mitchell EA. Clothing and bedding and its relevance to sudden infant death syndrome: further results from the New Zealand Cot Death Study. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 1994;30:506-12.

39. Hauck FR, Herman SM, Donovan M, et al. Sleep environment and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in an urban population: the Chicago Infant Mortality Study. Pediatrics 2003;111:1207-14.

40. Blair PS, Sidebotham P, Evason-Coombe C, Edmonds M, Heckstall-Smith EMA, Fleming P. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ (Clinical research ed) 2009;339:b3666.

41. Short MA, Brooks-Brunn JA, Reeves DS, Yeager J, Thorpe JA. The effects of swaddling versus standard positioning on neuromuscular development in very low birth weight infants. Neonatal network: NN 1996;15:25-31.

42. Madlinger-Lewis L, Reynolds L, Zarem C, Crapnell T, Inder T, Pineda R. The effects of alternative positioning on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit: a randomized clinical trial. Research in Developmental Disabilities 2014;35:490-7.

43. Conde-Agudelo A, Díaz-Rossello JL. Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low birthweight infants. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2016:CD002771.

44. L’Hoir MP, Engelberts AC, van Well GT, et al. Risk and preventive factors for cot death in The Netherlands, a low-incidence country. European Journal of Pediatrics 1998;157:681-8.

45. McDonnell E, Moon RY. Infant deaths and injuries associated with wearable blankets, swaddle wraps, and swaddling. The Journal of Pediatrics 2014;164:1152-6.